¶ And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things,
that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to
the king of Achshaph,
2 And to the kings that were on the north of the mountains, and of the plains south of Chinneroth, and in the valley, and in the borders of Dor on the west,
| 1 -
Jabin The name may mean "he understands" and could have been a word
like "Pharaoh" to designate the head of state. See the same name in jg0402.
Hazor was a fortified city. The word means "enclosure."
1 - Maddon It's location is unknown. See the Galilee map for a suggestion of its location (west of the lake).
2 - Kings ... north of the mountains Probably those in the area of The Sea of Chinnereth (later called the Sea of Galilee and still later, Sea of Tiberius). See Galilee map. Or a larger map.
2 - Plains From arabah Here it probably means the Jordan valley in the area south of the lake.
|.3 And to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the mountains, and to the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh.|| 3 -Hivite
under Hermon The northern boundary of Canaan east of the Jordan.
3 - Hermon "A lofty mountain on the northeast border of Palestine, called also Sirion Shenir, and Sion, (not Zion,) De 3:8; 4:39. It is a part of the great Anti-Lebanon Range; at the point where an eastern and lower arm branches off, a little south of the latitude of Damascus, and runs in a southerly direction terminating east of the head of the sea of Galilee. This low range is called Jebel Heish. Mount Hermon is believed to be what is now known as Jebel esh-Sheikh, whose highest summit, surpassing every other in Syria, rises into the region of perpetual snow or ice, ten thousand feet above the sea." (ATS Dict.)
And they went out, they and all their hosts with them, much people, even
as the sand that is upon the sea shore in multitude, with horses and chariots
5 And when all these kings were met together, they came and pitched together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.
went out "The chiefs of these several tribes were summoned by Jabin,
being all probably tributary to the kingdom of Hazor. Their combined forces,
according to JOSEPHUS, amounted to three hundred thousand infantry, ten
thousand cavalry, and twenty thousand war chariots." (JFB)
Chariots "The war chariots were probably like those of Egypt, made of wood, but nailed and tipped with iron. These appear for the first time in the Canaanite war, to aid this last determined struggle against the invaders; and "it was the use of these which seems to have fixed the place of rendezvous by the lake Merom (now Huleh), along whose level shores they could have full play for their force." A host so formidable in numbers, as well as in military equipments, was sure to alarm and dispirit the Israelites. Joshua, therefore, was favored with a renewal of the divine promise of victory [v6], and thus encouraged, he, in the full confidence of faith, set out to face the enemy." (JFB)
| 6 And the LORD said
unto Joshua, Be not afraid because of them: for to morrow about this time
will I deliver them up all slain before Israel: thou shalt hough their
horses, and burn their chariots with fire.
7 So Joshua came, and all the people of war with him, against them by the waters of Merom suddenly; and they fell upon them.
8 And the LORD delivered them into the hand of Israel, who smote them, and chased them unto great Zidon, and unto Misrephothmaim, and unto the valley of Mizpeh eastward; and they smote them, until they left them none remaining.
.9 And Joshua did unto them as the LORD bade him: he houghed their horses, and burnt their chariots with fire.
|9 - Houghed In modern English, "Hamstrung." Joshua may have been tempted to keep these resources for future battles, but the glory was to be God's. He would give them into Joshua's hand v8.|
| 10 ¶ And Joshua at that
time turned back, and took Hazor, and smote the king thereof with the sword:
for Hazor beforetime was the head of all those kingdoms.
.11 And they smote all the souls that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them: there was not any left to breathe: and he burnt Hazor with fire.
12 And all the cities of those kings, and all the kings of them, did Joshua take, and smote them with the edge of the sword, and he utterly destroyed them, as Moses the servant of the LORD commanded.
.13 But as for the cities that stood still in their strength, Israel burned none of them, save Hazor only; that did Joshua burn.
14 And all the spoil of these cities, and the cattle, the children of Israel took for a prey unto themselves; but every man they smote with the edge of the sword, until they had destroyed them, neither left they any to breathe.
- Hazor See v1.
11 - Smote ... utterly destroying They apparently took no spoils. For the meaning of the Hebrew word for "utterly destroying" see on jos0617.
13 - In their strength Literally, "on their mounds" or "fenced with mounds." The "mound" would be what we know as a tell (hill where an ancient used to be). We may see bodies and remains of buildings as piled in a heap.See such tels in de1316, jos0828, jer3018, jer4902.
| 15 ¶ As the LORD commanded
Moses his servant, so did Moses command Joshua, and so did Joshua; he left
nothing undone of all that the LORD commanded Moses.
.16 So Joshua took all that land, the hills, and all the south country, and all the land of Goshen, and the valley, and the plain, and the mountain of Israel, and the valley of the same;
.17 Even from the mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir, even unto Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon under mount Hermon: and all their kings he took, and smote them, and slew them.
.18 Joshua made war a long time with all those kings.
- Left nothing undone Joshua had fully obeyed all the commands of
the Lord.. See ja0417.
16 - Hills See on jos1040,41.
17 - Mount Halak Literally smooth or divided mountain. jos1117, jos1207, the southern limit of Joshua's conquest.
| 19 There was not a city
that made peace with the children of Israel, save the Hivites the inhabitants
of Gibeon: all other they took in battle.
20 For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel in battle, that he might destroy them utterly, and that they might have no favour, but that he might destroy them, as the LORD commanded Moses.
21 And at that time came Joshua, and cut off the Anakims from the mountains, from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, and from all the mountains of Judah, and from all the mountains of Israel: Joshua destroyed them utterly with their cities.
- Gibeon See map,
20 - Harden ... come against Israel On hardening hearts, see on ex0815.
There was none of the Anakims left in the land of the children of Israel:
only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod, there remained.
23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD said unto Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land rested from war.
|23 - Joshua took "The battle of the take of Merom was to the north what the battle of Beth-horon was to the south; more briefly told and less complete in its consequences; but still the, decisive conflict by which the whole northern region of Canaan fell into the hands of Israel ..." (JFB)|